Unified Motion Planner for Fishes with Various Swimming Styles
  • ACM Transactions on Graphics (SIGGRAPH 2016)


We propose a unified motion planner that reproduces variations in swimming styles based on the differences in the fish skeletal structures or the variations in the swimming styles based on changes in environmental conditions. The key idea in our method, based on biology, is the following. We considered the common decision-making mechanism in fish that allows them to instantly decide "where and how to swim." The unified motion planner comprises two stages. In the first stage, where to swim to is decided. Using a probability distribution generated by integrating the perceptual information, the short-term target position and target speed are decided. In the second stage, how to swim is decided. A style of swimming that matches the information for transitioning from the current speed to the target speed is selected. Using the proposed method, we demonstrate 12 types of CG models with completely different sizes and skeletal structures, such as manta ray, tuna, and boxfish, as well as a scene where a school of a few thousand fish swim realistically. Our method is easy to integrate into existing graphics pipelines. In addition, in our method, the movement characteristics can easily be changed by adjusting the parameters. The method also has a feature where the expression of an entire school of fish, such as tornado or circling, can be designated top-down.


[Copyright 2016 by the authors. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here for your personal use. Not for redistribution. The definitive version is published in ACM Transactions on Graphics, http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2897824.2925977]


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@article{satoi:2016, author = {Satoi, Daiki and Hagiwara, Mikihiro and Uemoto, Akira and Nakadai, Hisanao and Hoshino, Junichi} title = {Unified Motion Planner for Fishes with Various Swimming Styles}, journal = {ACM Transactions on Graphics (Proc. SIGGRAPH)}, url = {http://entcomp.esys.tsukuba.ac.jp/en/project/unified-motion-planner/}, volume = {35}, number = {4}, year = {2016}, doi = {10.1145/2897824.2925977}, keywords = {fish swimming, motion planning, fish school control}}


We thank the anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments. We thank Kenichiro Akimoto, Naoya Amata (STUDIO 4°C Co., Ltd.), and Masato Hirabayashi for their help on developing the proposed method. We also thank Masazumi Nakamura, Masayuki Akiba, Yoko Kubotera, Erika Tsuzuki, and Yoshihiko Ota (Intel Corporation) for their help on the demonstration of interactive application in this work. This work was funded by JSPS KAKENHI 15K12178 and HAYAO NAKAYAMA Foundation for Science & Technology and Culture H26-A1-98.


Daiki Satoi
dsatoi [at] acm.org